References

Premodern · Modern · Contemporary




Premodern


Prehistoric, Ancient and medieval cartography in the West.


From prehistory to civilization:
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  1. Erupting volcano painting at Çatalhöyük, 6200 BCE. Drawing by Grace Huxtable.
  2. Drawing of the “Star fresco” cosmological map at Teleilat Ghassul, 5th millennium BCE (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor).
  3. Bedolina Map, Valcamonica, 6th–4th millennium BCE. Drawing by Cristina Turconi.
  4. Rock carvings in Paspardo, Valcamonica, 4th millennium BCE. Ddrawing by Andrea Arcà.
  5. Clay map of the city of Nippur, ca. 1500 BCE (Friedrich-Schiller University). Drawing by Noah Kramer.
  6. Turin Papyrus, ancient Egyptian mining map, 12th century BCE (Turin Map).
  7. Imago Mundi, Babylonian map of the world (clay tablet), 9th century BCE (British Museum).




Classical Antiquity:
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2.
  1. Tabula Peutingeriana, copied in 1200 AD from an original by Agrippa c. 27 BCE–AD (Austrian National Library).
  2. Miniatures from Codex Palatinus Latinus, 1564 (Vatican Library). Based on the surveying treaty Corpus Agrimensorum Romanorum, by Hyginus Gromaticus, ca. 9th century.



Islamic medieval maps:
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3.a
3.b
4.a
4.b
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5.b
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  1. al-Idrisi, Tabula Rogeriana (”Book of Roger”), 1154, facsimile from the 19th century (Gallica, BNF). Drawn from Arabic translations of Ptolemy's Geography.
  2. al-Idrisi, World Map, 1154, copy from 1456 (Gallica, BNF).
  3. al-Idrisi, Western Bulgaria (a) and Bulgarian Black Sea (b) in Paris Manuscript, copy from ca. 13–14th century (BNF Gallica).
  4. Unknown author (Fatimid Egyptian), “World Map” (a) and “Map of Sicily” (b) from Kitab Ghara’ib al-funun wa-mulah al-’uyun (“Book of Curiosities of the Sciences and Marvels for the Eyes“), ca. 12th century, copy from 13th-century (Bodleian Library).
  5. Ibn Hawqal, World Map (a), 980 AD, copy from ca. 1445 (Gallica BNF) and Kitab surat al-ard (”Book of a picture of the earth”) (b), copy from ca. 15–16th century (Suleymaniye Library).
  6. al-Istakhri, Kitab al-masalik wa al-mamalik (”Book of Roads and Kingdoms”), ca. 950 CE (Leiden University).
  7. Zakariya al-Qazwini, Aja'ib al-Makhluqat (”The Wonders of Creatures and the Marvels of Creation“), 13th century, copy from ca. 1530 (Yale Beinecke Library).




Christian medieval T-O maps and Mappa Mundi:
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  1. T-O map in a Sallust manuscript, 12th century (Biblioteca Vaticana).
  2. T-O map in the printed edition of Zacharias Lilius, Orbis breviarium, Florence 1493.
  3. T-O map in the printed edition of Zacharias Lilius, Orbis breviarium, Florence 1493.
  4. Vercelli world map, ca. 1217.
  5. Anglo-Saxon Cotton World Map, 1035.
  6. Gervase of Ebstorf (or Tilbury), Ebstorf World Map, ca. 1255.
  7. Hereford Mappa Mundi, ca. 1290 (Hereford Cathedral).
  8. Marino Sanuto world map, 1340.
  9. Fra Mauro, Mappa Mundi, ca. 1450 (Biblioteca Nazionale Maciana).
  10. Lucas Brandis, Rudimentum Novitorium, 1475 (Library of Congress).
  11. Unknown author, Apographon Descriptionis Orbis Terrae (”Borgia Map”), early 15th century (Vatican Library).
  12. Evrard d'Espinque’s Illuminations from De Proprietatibus Rerum, ca. 1480 (Gallica BNF).



Medieval itinerary maps:
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  1. Matthew Paris, several versions of the Map of Great Britain, ca. 1255–1259 (British Library).
  2. Matthew Paris, Liber additamentorum, An itinerary map, showing the route between London and Naples, 1250-1259 (British Library).
  3. Matthew Paris, final section of an itinerary map of the route between London and the Holy Land, showing Acre, Jerusalem and Bethlehem, mid-13th-century (British Library).
  4. John Hardyng, Map of Scotland, 15th-century (British Library).
  5. Pietro Vesconte, road map of Palestine in Liber secretorum fidelium crucis (”The Book of Secrets for Faithful Crusaders”), ca. 1321.



Latin translations of Ptolemy’s Geography:
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3.b
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4.b
4.c
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  1. Ptolemy's First Projection (modified conic) in a mid-15th century florentine reconstruction after Jacobus Angelus’s 1406 Latin translation of the Geography (British Library Harley).
  2. Map of South-East Asia from the above-mentioned manuscript (British Library).
  3. Ptolemy’s Geography translated into Latin by Jacobus Angelus, illuminated by Nicolaus Germanus in Cosmographia Claudii Ptolomaei Alexandrini, ca. 1407–67 (Reichenbach Monastery). a) British Isles, b) Italian peninsula, c) Iberian peninsula.
  4. Pietro del Massaio, illuminations for the Ptolemaic Code, three surviving manuscripts 1469, 1472, undated (Vatican Library). a) Rome, b) Jerusalem, c) Florence, d) Milan.




Modern


Western cartography from the Renaissance until World War II.

City panoramas:
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4.a
4.b
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  1. Francesco Rosselli, View of Florence from the South West, ca. 1495 (Victoria and Albert Museum).
  2. Unknown artist, View of Rome, ca. 1538 (Palazzo Ducale di Mantova).
  3. Master of Rhenen, Flood of Holland in a dream of St. Elizabeth, ca. 1480 (Rijksmuseum Amsterdam).
  4. Duarte D’armas, View of Mértola (a), Penas Roias (b) and Almeida (c), Livro das Fortalezas Situadas no Extremo de Portugal e Castela, 1509–10 (Torre do Tombo).




Portolan charts:
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  1. Abraham Cresques, Catalan Atlas, ca. 1375 (Gallica BNF).
  2. Jorge de Aguiar, Portolan Chart of the Mediterranean, Western Europe and African Coast, 1492. (Beinecke Library).
  3. Unknown Portuguese author, Cantino Planisphere, 1502 (Biblioteca Estense).
  4. Pedro or Jorge Reinel (?), Portuguese chart of the South Atlantic in the ‘Miller’ atlas, ca. 1519 (Gallica BNF).
  5. Piri Reis, Kitāb-ı Baḥrīye (“Book of the Sea"), ca. 1520s (Walters Art Museum). a) Black Sea, b) Island of Rhodes, c) Tunisian coast, d) River Nile, e) city of Alexandria.




Mercator projection:
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  1. Gerardus Mercator, Nova et Aucta Orbis Terrae Descriptio ad Usum Navigantium Emendate Accommodata, 1569 (Gallica BNF).
  2. Comparative diagrams: a)  Mercator projection; b) Gall-Peters projection; c) Oblique Mercator projection with curved rhumb lines.




Town plans:
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  1. Pedro Barreto de Resende, Livro das Plantas de Todas as Fortalezas, 1635 (Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal).
  2. Joan Blaeu, Map of Amsterdam (a), Delft (b), and Brugge (c), ca. 1649–52 (Biblioteca Nacional de España).
  3. Johannes Vingboons (att.), a) View of Judea, Capital of Siam; b) View of Banda, Southern Moluccas; c) View of Raiebaagh in Visiapoer, India; d) View of the Dutch Trading Post in Lawec in Cambodia, ca. 1662, (Rijksmuseum).




Enclosure maps:
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  1. John Nordern, A Description of the Honor of Windesor (“Survey of Windesor”), 1607 (British Museum).
  2. Upton enclosure map, 1735 (Hampshire Archives).
  3. Martin Le Frere, Carte généralle de la baronnie de Rots, 1749 (Archives du Calvados).




Hunting tables:
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  1. Pierre-Denis Martin, Map of the Forest of Compiègne with a Royal Hunt, 1739, and Map of Part of the Hunting Property at Compiègne, 1737 (Château de Compiègne).
  2. Andrieux de Benson, Hunt table: Map of the forest of Compiégne, 1730 (Châteaux de Versailles).




Triangulation and the land survey:
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  1. César-François Cassini de Thury and family, Description géométrique de la France (“Carte de l'Académie”), 1744 (Gallica BNF). a) Yvelines, b) Dunkerque, c) Paris.
  2. Gianbattista Nolli and Giovanni Piranesi, Nuova Topografia di Roma and detail (a), 1748 (Biblioteca Nazionale di Roma).
  3. William Lambton et al., Index Chart of the Great Trigonometrical Survey, 1870. Source: Survey of India.
  4. Louis Bretez (surveyor) and Claude Lucas (engraver), Turgot Map of Paris, ca. 1730s. Source: Norman B. Leventhal Map Center.




Colonial America:
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  1. Unknown author, Silver Mining at Potosi, 1584 (Hispanic Society of America).
  2. Gaspar Miguel de Berrío, Cerro Rico and the Imperial Municipality of Potosí, 1758 (Museo Colonial Charcas).
  3. Peter Gordon, A view of Savannah as it stood the 29th of March 1734, ca. 1876 (Library of Congress).
  4. Unknown author, Philadelphia and neighborhood, 1778 (Library of Congress).
  5. Thomas Holme, A Mapp of Ye Improved Part of Pensilvania in America, Divided Into Countyes, Townships and Lotts, ca. 1700 (Library of Congress).
  6. Unknown author, Bird's eye view of Philadelphia and vicinity showing location of the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, ca. 1870 (Library of Congress).
  7. Theodore R. Davis, Bird's eye view of Philadelphia, 1872 (Library of Congress).




Encyclopaedic Atlases:
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1.b
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2.c
  1. Sidney Hall and William Hughes, General Atlas of the World, 1829.
  2. Alexander von Humboldt, Illustrations from Ideas for a Geography of Plants Together with a Natural Painting of the Tropics, 1805.




    Poverty maps:
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    1. John Snow, On the Mode of Communication of Cholera, 1854 (London: C.F. Cheffins, Lith).
    2. Charles Booth, Descriptive Map of London Poverty, 1889 (London School of Economics).




    City Beautiful movement:
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    1.b
    1.c
    1.d
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    1. Frederik Law Olmsted, a) Buffalo Park System, b) Birmingham Alabama, c) Chicago Fair, d) Riverside suburb.
    2. Daniel Hudson Burnham, Edward H. Bennett and Charles Moore, Plan of Chicago, 1909 (Art Institute of Chicago).




    Modernist Utopias:
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    1.a
    2.a
    2.b
    2.c
    2.d
    2.e
    3.
    1. Frank Lloyd Wright, Broadacre City, 1932. a) Hillside Theatre Curtain, 1952. (1) Green hills of the valley (2) Taliesin (3) Wisconsin River (4) Highway 23 bridge (5) Wright’s signature.
    2. Ludwig Hilberseimer, The New City: Principles of Planning, 2012 (1944).
             a) Planning system: A. main traffic artery with station and airport; B. Commercial area; C. Smokeless industry. D. Smoke-producing industry.
             b) European industrial city, in its present state and condition.
             c) European industrial city, in its proposed replanning.
             d) Chicago in its present state and condition.
             e) Chicago in its proposed replanning.
         3. Moisei Ginzburg and Mikhail  Barsh (OSA), Moscow Green City, 1930 (SA–Sovremennaya Arkhitektura at Techne Archive).




    Contemporary


    Cartography from the postwar period until today.


    This section is under construction